Archon Fung presents another classification of participation based on three key questions: Who is allowed to participate, and are they representative of the population? What is the method of communication or decision-making? And how much influence or authority is granted to the participation?
Robert Silverman expands on Sherry Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation with the introduction of his “Citizen Participation Continuum.” In this extension to Arnstein’s work he takes the groups that drive participation into consideration and the forms of participation they pursue. Silverman’s continuum then distinguishes between grassroots participation and instrumental participation.
“Cooperation is central to successful human societies. But why are people willing to incur the individual costs involved in cooperating?”
Sherry Arnstein’s ‘ladder of citizen participation’ specifically outlines power structures and hierarchies of decision-making in the American 1960’s, as well as the rhetoric used by ‘powerholders’ but the article also provides a basis for understanding participation at a methodological-level.
Abstract: The heated controversy over “citizen participation,” “citizen control”, and “maximum feasible involvement of the poor,” has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered using examples from three federal social programs: urban renewal, anti-poverty, and Model Cities. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens’ power in determining the plan and/or program.